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Quicktravel and/or Death - What happens with Memory/Body?
The machine head wearing Strange Resistance Lady at the Resistance Camp gives us the best insight:
Since there doesn’t seem to be a way to transfer the actual physical body of an android, it is most likely that the bodies to be used are constructed within the transporter itself.
After dying, an android's body may be retrieved or repaired by another android, perhaps even the previous owner of said body.
When it comes to death, if faced with a dangerous situation that will likely result in their bodies being destroyed, androids will attempt to upload their personal data to prevent ‘’losing themselves’’. This action can be seen both in the prologue and during the beginning of Route C
Should they be unable to do this however, an android’s backup data, which is stored on the Bunker’s servers, will be used in their reconstructed body, which is what would’ve happened to 9S at the end of Route A/B, had he not been able to transfer his data over to the network.
But you’ll lose you. The you that exists at this very moment—2B, Chapter 10-5 2B and 9S
This action of restoring from an older backup however is often seen as a last resort, as it will result in an android losing its unsaved memories, and becoming a different person. A fate which to some androids is worse than death.
Pod 042 (narration): Unit 9S knows that there's only one solution left that could dispel the contamination.
Pod 042 (narration): To lock his personal data and reformat his entire system.
Pod 042 (narration): To throw away all of his current memories, and be reborn anew.—Precious Things,